November, 6, 2019
 
Published from Palai
Issue : 36
Volume : 52
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

FÃmhÀ¡pw kzoImcy\mb hnip²³
^m.Ipcymt¡mkv \cnXq¡nÂ

HIvtSm_À 13 \v hnip²]Zhnbnte¡pbÀ¯s¸« IÀ±n\mÄ tPm¬ sl³dn \yqamsâ (1801þ1890) PohnXhgnIfneqsS Hcp XoÀ°bm{X

   
 

Bw¥n¡³k`
GIhpw ]cnip²hpw ssÇlnIhpw kmÀÆ{XnIhpamb k`bn BZy\qämWvSpIfn¯s¶ Bcnb\nkwt]mepÅ ]mjÞXIÄ DWvSmbn«pWvSv. F¶mÂ, Gähpw henb `n¶n¸v Asæn ioiva, H¶mw kl{km_vZ¯nsâ A´y¯n tdmapw tIm¬Ìmânt\m¸nfpambn DWvSmbXmWv. k`mNcn{X¯nse cWvSmas¯ {][m\s¸« `n¶n¸v ]Xn\mdmw \qämWvSnemWp kw`hn¨Xv. bqtdm]y³ h³Icbn eqYÀ (1483þ1546), ImÂhn³ 1509þ1564 XpS§nbhÀ AXn\p t\XrXzw sImSp¯p. t{]m«Ìâv\hoIcWsa¶pw t{]m«Ìâv hn¹hsa¶pw AXv Adnbs¸Sp¶p.
Cw¥WvSn sl³dn F«ma³cmPmhv (1491þ1547) eqYdnsâ ]T\§fnse sXäpIÄ NqWvSn¡m«ns¡mWvSv FgpXpIbpw amÀ]m¸mbnÂ\n¶v "hnizmkkwc£I³' F¶ _lpaXn¡v AÀl\mhpIbpw sNbvXp. F¶mÂ, ImXssd³ cmÚn¡v B¬Ip«nIÄ P\n¡m¯Xn\m B hnhmlw Akm[phmbn {]Jym]n¡Wsa¶pw cmÚnbpsS tXmgnbmb B\nt_mfns\ hnhmlw sN¿m³ A\phZn¡Wsa¶papÅ A`yÀ°\bn amÀ]m¸m Xocpam\saSp¡msX h¨pXmakn¸n¨XpsImWvSv PÀ½\nbnse cmPm¡·mÀ sNbvXXpt]mse sl³dn F«ma\pw amÀ]m¸mbnÂ\n¶p kzmX{´yw {]Jym]n¨p. k`bv¡v Ecclesia Anglicana F¶p e¯o\nepw The Church of England F¶v Cw¥ojnepw \maIcWw sNbvXp. ]mÀesaân ]mkm¡nb \nba§fneqsS Cu k`sb Cw¥WvSnsâ HutZymKnIaXambn {]Jym]n¡pIbpw sNbvXp. FXnÀ¸p {]ISn¸n¨hsc h[n¡pItbm \mSpIS¯pItbm sNbvXp. e¯o\nse Bw¥nbbmWv Cw¥WvSmbXv. k`bpsS Xeh³ (KhÀWÀ) Cw¥WvSnse cmPmhmbncn¡psa¶p {]Jym]n¨p. Cu Bw¥n¡³ k`bnemWv 1801  \yqam³ `qPmX\mbXv.
tPm¬ sl³dn \yqam³ eWvS\nse Hcp Bw¥n¡³IpSpw_¯n ss__nÄ hmb\bnepw aäp `àIrXy§fnepw XXv]c\mbn Ip«n¡mew sNehgn¨p. 1816  ]Xn\©mw hbÊn tcmK_m[nX\mbn Bip]{Xnbn Ignbpt¼mÄ ImÂhn\nkväv {KÙ§Ä hmbn¡pIbpw BZys¯ am\km´cw F¶v \yqam³ Xs¶ hntijn¸n¡p¶ ssZhm\p`h¯nte¡p hcnIbpw sNbvXp: "Rm\pw Fsâ ssZhhpw' F¶ Nn´ \nc´cw ssZhkm¶n[y¯n hym]cn¡phm³ Cu sNdp¸¡mcs\ {]m]vX\m¡n. kzÀ¤w kz]v\w ImWpt¼mÄ AXp Xsâ IpSpw_hoSn\p Xpeyambn«mWv ImWs¸«ncp¶Xv. amXm]nXm¡fpw cWvSp ktlmZc·mcpw aq¶p ktlmZcnamcpw AS§p¶ `h\w \yqam\p kzÀ¤ambncp¶p. 1824  ]nXmhnsâ acWtijw IpSpw_¨paXeIÄ tPm¬ sl³dn \yqam³ GsäSpt¡WvSn h¶p. kvtImfÀjn¸p e`n¡bm D]cn]T\w km[yambn. HmIvkvt^mUnse {Sn\nän tImfPn ]T\amcw`n¨p. kaÀ°\mb Hcp hnZymÀ°nbmbncp¶p \yqam³. ITn\m²zm\w ImcWw £oWnX\mb \yqam\p ]co£IÄ \¶mbn sN¿m³ km[n¨nÃ. F¦nepw Hcp aÕc¸co£bneqsS {]ikvXamb Hmdnb tImfPn {]thi\w e`n¨p.
Gsd {]mÀ°\bv¡pw ]cnNn´\¯n\pwtijw {_ÒNcyw XncsªSp¡pIbpw Bw¥n¡³k`bn sshZnI\mIm³ Xocpam\n¡pIbpw sNbvXp. 1824  Uo¡\pw Hcp sImÃw Ignªt¸mÄ sshZnI\pambn. Hmdnb tImfPn Syq«dmbn \nban¡s¸SpIbpw sNbvXp.
sshZnIs\¶ \nebn BZyw \nbanX\mIp¶Xv HmIvkvs^mUn skâv s¢aâv ]ÅnbpsS klhnImcnbmbn«mWv. cWvSp sImÃw AhnsS tkh\w sNbvXp. Bßm¡fpsS c£bn XXv]c\mb AP]meI\mbn«mWv \yqam³ Adnbs¸«ncp¶Xv. Nn´ns¨mcp§n \S¯nbncp¶ {]kwK§Ä ]n¶oSv A¨Sn¨p {]kn²w sNbvXn«pWvSv. "\yqam\ÃmsX aämcpw Fsâ Bßmhnsâ Imcys¯¸än Ft¶mSp kwkmcn¨n«nÃ' F¶v Hcp hnZymÀ°n ]n¶oSp ]dbpIbpWvSmbn.
1828  HmIvkvs^mUv skâv tacokv bqWnthgvknän NÀ¨nsâ hnImcnbmbn \nbanX\mbn. AhnsS hnImcnbmbncn¡pt¼mgmWv Bw¥n¡³ k`bn Hcp \hoIcW{]Øm\amb HmIvkvs^mUv aqhvsaânsâ Bcw`w. 1833 Pqsse 14 \v tPm¬ Io_Ä sNbvX "tZiob aXXymKw' F¶ {]`mjWw Cu {]Øm\¯n\v Bcw`wIpdn¨p.
\yqam\pw tPm¬ Io_fpw FtUzÀUv ]pknbpsaÃmw H¶n¨p {]hÀ¯n¡pIbmbncp¶p. [mcmfw eLpteJIÄ (tracts for Times) FgpXn hnXcWw sNbvXncp¶XpsImWvSv {SmIvtädnb³ aqhvsaâv (Tractarian Movement) F¶pw Adnbs¸«ncp¶p. hfsc kzm[o\apÅ Hcp {]Øm\ambn AXp hfÀ¶v 90þmas¯ {SmIvän It¯men¡mk`bnse s{Xt´mkv kq\ltZmknse \nÝb§Ä Bw¥n¡³k`bpsS hnizmkkwlnXbpambn H¯pt]mIpsa¶ {]kvXmh\ henb {]tIm]\apWvSm¡n. HmIvkvs^mUv _nj¸nsâ \nÀt±i{]Imcw {SmIvävkv Fgp¯p \ndp¯n. BZnak`m]nXm¡·mcpsS {KÙ§Ä Bg¯n ]Tn¨psImWvSncp¶p.
t{]m«Ìâv k`IÄ¡pw tdma³k`bv¡pw at[y BZnak`bpsS ]n³XpSÀ¨ AhImis¸Sphm³ Bw¥n¡³k`bv¡p km[n¡psa¶v \yqam³ hnNmcn¨ncp¶p. Asæn Htc A¸kvtXmenIk`bpsS imJIfmbn tdma³, {Ko¡v Bw¥n¡³ k`Isf ImWmsa¶v \yqam³ Nn´n¨ncp¶p. F¶mÂ, Bw¥n¡³k`bpsS Nne Xocpam\§Ä \yqams\bpw HmIvkvs^mUv {]Øm\¯nse Hcp \à kwLw sNdp¸¡mscbpw "Ahkm\w tdmamk`bn A`bw {]m]nt¡WvSn hcpsa¶v' Nn´n¡phm³ kmlNcysamcp¡n. F¶mepw \yqam³ H¶pw Xocpam\n¨nÃ. "amä§Ä hfÀ¨bpsS ASbmf§fmsW¶' X¯z¯nsâ ASnØm\¯n tdma³ k`bnse amä§sf hniZoIcn¡phm³ "{InkvXob {]t_m[\§fpsS hfÀ¨' F¶ hnjbw ]Tn¡phm³ XpS§n. Cu amä§sfm¶pw ASnØm\{]amW§Ä¡p amäw hcp¯nsöpw \yqam³ hyàam¡nbncp¶p.
"Bw¥n¡³ F¶ \nebn Rms\â acW¡nS¡bnemsW¶v' \yqam\p tXm¶nb ImeL«w.
skâv tacokv ]ÅnbpsS hnImcnØm\w hns«mgnªp. Xsâ {][m\s¸« {]`mjW§Ä¡p thZnbmbncp¶ CShIssZhmebt¯mSpw {]kwK]oTt¯mSpw hnS]dªv enän tamdnte¡p amdn¯makn¨p. kmh[m\w Xm³ P\n¨phfcpIbpw Xo£vWambn tkh\w sN¿pIbpw sNbvX Bw¥n¡³k`tbmSp bm{X ]dªp. F¶m \yqam³ Hcn¡epw Bw¥n¡³ k`sbtbm HmIvkvs^mUns\tbm Xmgv¯ns¡«m³ {ian¨nÃ. \à _豈 \ne\ndp¯pIbpw sNbvXp. "At¸mfPnbm' hmbn¨t¸mgmWv AXv Bw¥n¡³ kplr¯p¡Ä¡p a\ÊnembXv. Bw¥n¡³ F¶ \nebn \yqam³ \S¯nb Ahkm\s¯ {]`mjW¯n\v "kplr¯p¡Ä hgn ]ncnbpt¼mÄ' F¶ ioÀjIamWv \evInbXv: ""C\nta \n§Ä Fs¶ Cu ]Ånbn tIÄ¡pIbnÃ. F¶mepw F\n¡pthWvSn {]mÀ°n¡pI. Ft¸mgpw ssZhlnXw a\Ênem¡m\pw {]mhÀ¯nIam¡m\pw F\n¡p Ignbphm³thWvSn {]mÀ°n¡phn³.'' tX§n¡cªpsImWvSmWv ]Ån \ndªp\n¶ hnizmknIÄ Cu bm{XmsamgnIÄ tI«Xv. bmsXmcp Cf¡hpw IqSmsX \yqam³ Xsâ Ku¬ Ducn Agn¡men C«n«v \S¶p\o§nsb¶v PohnXNcn{X¯n acntbmÄ s{ShÀ tcJs¸Sp¯nbn«pWvSv. \yqam³ Bw¥n¡³k`bnepw hnip²\mbn hW§s¸Sp¶p. AtXkabw sdmUdn¡v s{Ìbn³Pv ]dbp¶Xpt]mse ]qÀWambpw Cw¥ojpImc\mbncn¡phm³ It¯men¡\p km[n¡psa¶v \yqam³ ImWn¨psImSp¯p (A Mind Alive p.5).
2019 HIvtSm_À 18 se HÊÀht¯msc sdmamt\mbn shbnÂkv cmPIpamc³ FgpXn: ""sshhn[y§fn Xmfebw IsWvS¯nb alm\mWv \yqam³.''
setbm ]Xnaq¶ma³ amÀ]m¸m IÀ±n\mÄ]Zhn \evIn BZcn¨t¸mÄ \yqam\pWvSmb kwXr]vXn F{Xam{Xambncp¶psh¶v "FsâtaepÅ kwib¯nsâ \ngepIÄ \o§n' F¶ \oco£Wt¯msSbmWv hyàam¡nbXv. AXn\v Hcp sImÃw ap¼v 32 hÀjambn Xncn¨pIbdm³ IgnbmXncp¶ HmIvkvs^mUn {Sn\nän tImfPn hnfn¨v BZcn¨t¸mÄ At±lw Gsd kt´mjn¡pIbpWvSmbn.
1890 HmKÌv 12 \v \yqamsâ acWhmÀ¯ \evInb The Times ]{Xw FgpXn: ""Hcp Imcyw \ap¡p XoÀ¨bm¡mw. Cu DZm¯hpw \njvIf¦hpw ]mc{XnIhpamb PohnX¯nsâ HmÀ½ \ne\nev¡pw. Hcp\mÄ tdmw hnip²\mbn {]Jym]n¨mepw Csænepw Cw¥WvSnse hnhn[ k`IfnÂs¸« hnizmknIÄ¡v At±lw Hcp hnip²\mbncn¡pw. \yqam\nse hnip²³ AXnPohn¡pw.'' (HsÊÀht¯msc, 25 HIvtSm_À t]Pv 12)

(Ahkm\n¨p)

 
 
 

Chief Editor : Fr. Kurian Thadathil
Managing Editor : Fr. George Pazheparampil
Palai, Kottayam, Kerala, . 686575.
Ph : 04822 . 212842, Fax : 04822 . 212842
Email :
editor@deepanalam.com

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